Forum Rules 07/06/2016Introduction The Squad Team reserves the right to edit, update, add and remove rules at any time. Applicable rules extend to the PM system. Your PMs are private, but the Squad Team may be informed about unacceptable PM content by the receiving party. Section I: Posting Rules §1 Show Respect This community can only work if we all respect each other. To that end, it is imperative that any time you engage with another user, either directly or indirectly, you show them respect with the content of your post. In particular refrain from flaming, insulting, abusing, taunting, racism, and other similar types of actions towards other forum users. §2 Attitude & Behavior Poor attitude and behavior are the most common ways a negative / unsafe environment is created and perpetuated. As such that kind of behavior will not be allowed on these forums. Please be mindful of this rule when posting personal positions and opinions regarding topics which could be considered contentious in nature. As a rule of thumb, keep your posts civil in nature, and refrain from making posts that are likely to incite arguments and create a negative environment. As a privately hosted web forum we reserve the right to maintain an environment that we are happy the majority of our players are comfortable with. §3 Swearing While we will not strictly moderate every little swear that occurs, please try to avoid excessive bad language. The moderation reserves the right to remove rants and unsuitable content at any time. §4 Illegal Topics
Prohibited topics include, but are not limited to: Piracy, drugs (including cannabis), pornography, religion, racism, sexism, homo/trans -phobic content, videos and images showing violent death or serious injury, ‘spam threads’, hacking & griefing (endorsement thereof), religion, politics, etc. Prohibition may be suspended for some threads if they are found to be suitable by the Moderation (such as scientific debate).
If there is doubt, the Moderation Team can decide whether a topic is considered illegal. §5 Attitude towards Squad and the Development Team
As per §1 and §2, keep in mind to be respectful and reasonable, not only towards all users of the forum, but also towards the Squad Team and towards any ideas and content and the game itself. Criticism is welcome, but if it is not constructive and/or if it is offensive, the Moderation may need to step in. Please refrain from posting if you are upset, angry or drunk, or you may be punished for things you wouldn’t have otherwise written, which is not in anyone's interest. §6 Language & Legibility
Please post only in English. Non-English content (including non-legible content) may be removed. If you see someone posting in another language because s/he apparently does not speak English, please report their post - if you can, you may reply in their language to explain their question, but please do translate their and your message so it can be reviewed by the Moderation. ‘Hiding’ insults in non-English posts will be punished harshly. Posts written largely in ‘leetspeak’ or full of spelling / grammatical errors may be treated like non-English content. This rule does not extend to PMs. §7 Forum structure & Search
Please ensure when posting a new thread, that the thread is located inside the correct forum section. Check all forum section titles to judge where your thread should belong. Threads created in the wrong forum section will be moved or deleted.
Before posting a new thread, please make use of the forum search to find older threads about the same topic. In doubt, it is recommended to rather post in an existing thread, unless that thread is years out of date. However, do not bump old threads without adding a new question / answer / insight that wasn’t in that thread before - use common sense. §8 Thread Titles
Please name your thread appropriately; the subject title should sum up / explain the content in the thread. If you fail to name your thread properly (such as ‘Hey!’ or ‘Check this out!’ or ‘Help!’), we will either rename or lock the topic. Repeated offense may lead to infractions. The practice of using CAPITALS only in your thread title is not allowed and will be edited or the thread will simply be deleted. Strange or abnormal Unicode characters should be excluded from thread titles for the sake of being distracting and unnecessary.
§9 Thread Capitalization
Please ensure that your post is not in all CAPITALS, as this is not allowed. Any threads posted in all caps will subsequently be removed from the forum. Repeated offenses may lead to infractions against your account. This practice is not approved or accepted here.
§10 Images in posts
When posting images, mind the following restrictions:
.gifs will be allowed and may be removed by Staff if deemed necessary.
Maximum size for images is 1280x1024.
Do not include more than ~1 large image per paragraph of text, unless in image collection / announcement threads. Link to further images.
Consider posting thumbnails. You may post a few more images per post if they are reasonably small, the details are for the Moderation to judge. §11 The use of BBCode
It is allowed to use the BBCode in your posts. Over usage is not allowed. You may use the Bold in a reasonable manner but not for the whole text body. You may use the size feature but in a limited reasonable manner. You may not use any of the additional fonts at all. Color may be used to high light a point but again, not for the whole text body. Moderators will be watching for misuse and will edit when required without giving notice. Continued disregard for this rule will result in Moderator action in the form of warnings. §12 Complaints of Server/Admin Abuse Reports of server/admin abuse will not be posted publicly. All reports concerning this type of behavior should be place in the appropriate sub-forum. http://forums.joinsquad.com/forum/241-report-server-admin-abuse/ All posts made outside of this area will be be removed. Section II: Reporting & Moderation §1 Reporting Posts
There is a Post Report system in place. If you notice a post that violates forum rules, simply use the exclamation mark icon below the users avatar image to send a report to the Moderation. We will then review this post. Your report will not be made public and cannot be linked to your person by anyone outside of the Squad Team. You will not be punished for using the Report system even if the report was false, unless you repeatedly abuse the system to spam it.
Do not ‘report’ posts by replying directly in public to them. In case of spambots, this prompts them to respond in turn, spamming the forum further. This also fuels flame wars and arguments. §2 Reporting Moderators
Moderators are subject to the same forum rules (and some additional rules / exceptions). If you think that a Moderator has treated you unfairly or is otherwise breaking forum rules, please PM the Lead Moderator or any Administrator. Do not accuse Moderators in public, the Squad Team will treat every complaint seriously and it is in our interest to discipline or remove Moderators who are known to break forum rules. §3 Respect Squad Team members and Moderators
Do not ignore or argue against Admin, Moderator or Dev instructions on the forum. If you have a complaint, as per §2, please inform the Team in private. You are expected to follow orders given by the Moderation, Administration and Development Team, and it is necessary for smooth running of the forum to respect their decisions. Being stubborn or ignoring warnings will lead to harsher punishments - however, we do not tolerate Moderator / Admin abuse of power / privileges, so do not hesitate to inform other Team members if you feel treated unfairly. §4 Bans and multiple accounts
If your account is temporarily or permanently banned, do NOT create another account. Bypassing a ban will result in further action, and a permanent ban of all of your accounts.
You are not allowed to have more than one account for any reason. If you share an internet connection with another user who has their own account, it might happen that this account is incorrectly identified as a secondary account - please get in touch with the Moderation or Administration to resolve such issues.
Search the Community
Showing results for tags '2d'.
Found 1 result
Hello. In this tutorial I would like to talk about texel density. What is texel density? Before answering this question first of all it is necessary to define what is a texel... From wikipedia: Texel simple language - it is a pixel of the texture. Even if these concepts are similar, but not identical, you can perceive texel the same as the pixel. And a texel density is the number of texels per unit of the squre virtual (game) space. Or, other words, the amount of pixels which are covered by a UV-Shell. Why texel density is important and where? It's simple. The higher a texel density, the more detailed the texture on the screen. And the opposite: the less texture density, the more blurred the texture will be on the screen. Where it is important? Basically everywhere! Not only iside a single asset, but also between a different assets as well. Game scenes are usually composed of a plurality of objects. And because the games do teams consisting of several people, and because it is difficult to determine the size of your texture relative to other objects this may lead to the fact that each object in the scene will have varying degrees of detail. Here is an example from Internet: As you can see on this picture walls and barrels are more crisp while the texture on the floor is very blurry. This is because they have a different texel density (pixels in a meter). Also pay attention that walls, barrels, floor etc. - are all different assets (actors/entities), which can be made by a different people at the same time. So that's why It is important that texel density should be standardized (at least for an environment assets) on the project you're working to have constistant details on every asset. Otherwise some objects in your scene will be blured while some will have a very sharp details and overall they will contrast each other. But above all, it should be said that the texel density is not a mandatory rule. It can vary depending on your needs and possibilities, well at least if you know what you're doing. Experience shows that you can retreat from exact values within 25%-50% between different objects, but you should avoid this as much as possible. You can vary texel density inside a single object as well to distribute texture space proportional to the number of details that you want to show. For example if you doing a vehicle, you can double texel dencity on parts with high dencity of details like steel hawser, or for parts which player will be able to see very close (for example parts of the cabin) and you can decrese texel density for parts which is gonna be hard to reach for the player (such as the bottom) to save some texture space. Here some examples: And here what you gonna get if you if you do not pay enough attention to this issue: Hold on, pixel in a meter? Should we say pixels in a SQUARE meter maybe? Um, not actually. For density of 512, there are 262144 pixels in a square meter, so the density is a 262144/m^2. Now look at this value of 262144, does it says anything to you? Me neither. Thats why we are using a "linear" or "flat" values (like for one side of our square) for measuring the texel density. For example 512/m sounds more reasonable than "mathematically correct" value of 262144/m^2. But we will return to a square meters later. Should we use any software for this? Well, I met a couple of ways in the Internet about how to calculate it manually, when I was prepearing this material. But I will not bring this methods here, because it's hard to imagine a person who will do it manually every time. There are some free software solutions that will allow you to calculate and/or set texel density for your model. Lets talk about them. First lets talk about 3ds max. How we do it in 3ds max? Solution #1: A small script made by me... I called it Texel Denisity Tool, yes-yes my imagination is unlimited, I know, thank you Well, in truth I took "UV Normalizer" script from script spot made by Manu Pratap and rewrote it. Now the script is more powerfull and easy to use. The interface is looks like this: It duplicates the interface of the corresponding utility from Maya. Here is a download link. How to install: Just drag and drop it on 3ds max viewport or use MaxScript->Run Script... from the main menu. Then use Customize User Interface to assign this script to a shortcut or frop it on Toolbar. It will be in the category Custom and its called Texel Density Tool. Here is a short video showing this process: What should I do before use it? First of all you must decide what value you will be using. And the problem is that it depends on your project. But in today's games (at least in those that I worked) I have seen the values of 400-512-1024 pixel per meter (p/m) on average. Remember: the higher a texel density on your project, the lesser you can bake on your textures and the more you'll have to rely on tiled or trim textures as well as complicated shaders with some fancy blending methods to produce an acceptable game art. And do not forget about the texture memory and perfomance, this things are not boundless. So choose wisely. Lets say you choose 512/m and your engine is Unreal Engine 4. Next you should set up your units (Unreal using centimeters). Here is a tutorial about how to set up centimeters in Max. Pay attention that you can leave "Generic Units" in "Units Setup" tab and only change system units to centimeters (And I suggest you to do that, because max works more handy in this case). Here is the setting I'am using for example: Ok. Now we are ready for set our texel density. So how do you use this script? Pretty simple - you just launch this script. Set the a desired texel density in the field to the right of the "Get" button. Set your target map resolution and press "Set" and you're good to go. Super simple. But make sure you're added Unwrap UVW modifier to your model before use this script. Solution #2: This solution is called Advanced UV Normalizer. The only problem is that from version 2.0 it is no longer free. I also heard that TexTools can somehow adjust texel density but I've never tried because I don't like TexTools. Anyway. I've got an old free version of Advanced UV Normalizer which you can download here. And here is an official site where you can buy a lastest version of this script in case you need it. How to run? You can drag & drop it in max viewport. Or u can select it via Scripts>Run Script. Here is the short video: So how do we set texel density for crist sake? Fist of all you should add an Unwrap UVW modifier to your model and launch Advanced UV Normalizer. Next there are two ways of getting and setting texel density. First method: Because we know that we are using 512/m, we can create a cube with size of 1 cubic meter and each side of this cube will already have a necessary texel density. Well, you know, because by default its UVs are occupy all available UV area. So it doesn't matter what texel density you choose. If you're using right texture resolution for "1 cubic meter cube" it will always have the right density (for a specific texture resolution as I said). For example: if your density should be 1024 you can create a "1 cubic meter cube" apply 1024x1024 texture on it and you good to go - this cube will have the right density. Now, you can apply a checker texture on it, place your model near the cube and scale and compare UVs untill they match. Just joking. that's how people do it in the past. But today we have this piece of software, which is allowing us to "grab" the necessary texel density and apply it to any other model. To do this we should select "custom" from a drop down menu, type 512 pixels to Height and Width of Texture Size (because density is 512/m), select one side of the cube in UV Editor and press "Get Texel Density" button. Here are the values that you should get: As you can see Ratio Geom/Pixels showing 5,12 - this mean 512/m, but because our units are set to centimeters, and because there are 100 centimeters in 1 meter it showing us 5,12 pixels (per 1 cm). Ok. So now we have our texel density saved. To apply it to a different mesh, after you get right values, you simply can select an object where you need to set a texel density, set a target Texture Size (1024x1024, or 2048x2048 for example) and press "Normalize" button and thats it - you've set a texel density for your model. Here is a short video showing this process: Second method: Ok. Now after we know how this values work. I'll show you how you can set them manually. Ok, lets make a scheme for our for our convenience: First of all we need to select Custom from a dropdown menu [1.], then we need to set our target Texture Resolution [2.]. I should mention before its too late that "Target Texture Resultion" is a resolution of a texture that you will apply in the engine on the asset you're producing, so if you're going to use for example 1024x1024 texture for this asset, you should type 1024x1024 here. And here where things become a little bit complicated. We need to set our units . Pay attention that units must be squared. So in our case we are using centimeters, it's mean that we should take 100 centimeters (one meter) and square it, so the final value will be one with four zeroes (10000). For pixels [6.] we should do the same but insted we should square our density. I suggest you to use calculator for this. In our case we are using 512/m so 512*512=262144. If you, for example, want to use density of 1024/m, you should use 1024*1024=1048576. If you done everything right you should get 5.12 or 10.24 in Ratio Geom/Pixels section [7.] or whatever the the density you've chosed. Pay attention that "Target Texture Resultion" does not affect any of this calculation, you need it only for setting the density for UV-Shells. Here a screenshot with right values for density of 512/m: So now after you do all settings right you can apply your texel density to any model you're doing over there. And here is a short video showing the whole process: Pretty complicated, right? But nothing can be done. It just how this program works. And the bad news is that you'll have to do this every time you close Advanced UV Normalizer. In newest versions of this software, you can set Ratio Geom/Pixels directly and save a presets so you don't have to do this "piloting of a spaceship" crap every time. So I suggest you to buy a new version. Here is a screenshot of an Advanced UV Normalizer 2.3.0 just for a demontration: What about Maya? Oh, this is one of the few features of Maya, in which it is better than Max. I'm not 100% Maya user, but afaik starting from Maya 2017 (with all updates installed) Autodesk added a native instruments to work with texel density. To start working with it you should just open the UV Editor, open a Transform section and roll down untill you see "Texel Density (px/unit)". The Interface is similar to a script that I was talking at the beginning of this tutorial. Pretty much this is is where I took it from. It works exactly the same: Set the a desired texel density in the field to the right of the "Get" button. Set your target map resolution and press "Set" and you're good to go. Super simple as well. Pay attention that this tool is setting density for pixels per unit. Its mean that for different system units you'll have to type different values for texel density. For example for meters it will be 512, but for centimeters it will be 5.12 Here is a short video showing a process of setting up system units in Maya and using a texel density tool: Usefull links: All You Need to Know about Texel Density - Leonardo Iezzi Maya: Texel Density (TD) tutorial Texel Density for game art UE4 - Texel Density