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About Gews

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    Fireteam Leader
  1. Balance of AK74, M4, and L85a2

    5,56 fragments at high velocities thanks to the stress being too much for the bullet as it yaws after impact. Yet below that fragmentation threshold, the bullet will still yaw after impact just like the 5,45. How early it does that depends on the striking angle. The CoG might not be as far back as some of the 5,45. But the few gelatin tests you see are usually for the older 7N6, which has a steel core at the back, a smaller lead one in front of that, and a larger empty space in the nose—not the 7N10(M?) which doesn't have any air pocket in its nose. On the 7N10 the CoG is certainly not as far back. 7N10 left, 7N6 right Realistically the 5,56 would have a big damage advantage at close ranges where most kills seem to happen, and more arguable about what happens at longer ranges. I haven't seen proper tests of both at extended distances. The well-known Dr. Martin Fackler tested the AK-74 on a pig, and didn't seem to find anything particularly impressive about the effect of the 7N6 at close range. "We conclude that the AK-74, despite its rather high velocity and marked tendency to yaw soon after penetration, causes relatively nondramatic wounds due to its nonfragmenting behavior." (Wounding potential of the Russian AK-74 assault rifle. J Trauma 1984:24:263-266)
  2. Balance of AK74, M4, and L85a2

    If I use figures for 7N10 of 3,62 g and V0 = 900 m/s, and for M855A1, 4,02 g and 905,3 m/s, there is 12% more energy from the M4A1, even with the barrel 47 mm shorter. Comparing regular M855, it's 6% more than the 7N10 and 13% more than the 7N6. But let's not forget the much superior fragmentation from the M855A1. And even for regular SS109 / M855, remember that the velocity threshold for its fragmentation is not a threshold for its tumbling/yawing. Whereas 7N6 from AK74 (and I'm guessing 7N10/10M as well) doesn't even have a fragmentation threshold. I get 3,5 J free recoil for an AK-74M + 7N10 and 5,0 J for an M4 non-A1 with detachable carry handle + M855A1 I think it would be unfair to give 5.56 the same damage as a slightly weaker round loaded with less destructive projectiles.
  3. Focus Zoom

    Reticle needs to be a specific size for the rangefinder / bullet drop compensation to work. If you don't have 'focus zoom' then things appear smaller. And even if you make the image 4x larger the resulting sizes are still small. And so you need a small reticle. For another example, TA01NSN will look this size, at 4x from ~91 deg FOV: 4x from a ~58 deg FOV ('focus zoom') it would look like this:
  4. Focus Zoom

    1.8 m tall man, 100 m distance = 0.018 rad If you want to maintain the same angular value, for a viewing distance of 2 feet the 1.8 m man at 100 m should be displayed as 0.432" tall. For a 12.75" high 1920x1080 16:9 screen (~24" diagonal) that means 37 pixels. Everyone has a different distance/monitor, and there are other considerations, however. Here's a problem you get without any zoom. I scaled this PSO-1 reticle (scaled reticle only and not the surrounding black mask) to be properly sized when magnifying 4x from the base FOV of ~91° (ie, no 'eye zoom'). See how the reticle has to be really small? Doesn't look or play that great. Here's the same reticle correctly scaled when you zoom 4x from the base 'eye zoom' FOV of ~58°. Much better.
  5. Are you a good shot?

    0.44, 800 dpi, off.
  6. Are you a good shot?

    Not particularly. My frames aren't that great these days either. Red dot is okay but for whatever reason I seem to get the most satisfaction tapping with AKM, of the non-magnified sights.
  7. Music!

    Via spotify.me: 88% of your tracks are energetic 88% of your tracks are danceable Overall, your tracks are positive Your top genre is Dance Pop which appears in 100% of your top tracks. 100% of your favorite artists are within your most-listened to genre. YOU ARE HIGH ENERGY! We can’t seem to find any chill music in your recent streaming history. Generated playlist: Charli XCX - "Body of My Own" Little Boots - "New in Town" RuPaul - "U Wear It Well" Becky G - "Sola" JoJo - "Breezy" HAIM - "Something to Tell You" Carly Rae Jepsen - "More Than A Memory" Charli XCX - "SuperLove" Kesha - "TiK ToK" Neon Hitch - "Yard Sale" (PomPom Remix) RuPaul - "Champion" Carly Rae Jepsen - "Curiosity" Iggy Azalea ft. Rita Ora - "Black Widow" Little Boots - "Headphones" Karmin - "No Suitcase" Rita Ora - "How We Do (Party)" Charli XCX - "Red Balloon" The Saturdays - "808" MUNA - "I Know A Place" Jessie J - "Said Too Much"
  8. Music!

    Kesha released a new song the other day. The first time she's been on the charts since her feature on Timber (2013).
  9. Damage drop-off...?

    Developers seem to be telling a different story (emphasis mine): No, it's not totally 1:1 with real life, it's not intended to be, and couldn't be in any case. But your comment is hyperbolic. Even without relating to real life the question of how or why the specific values are chosen remains just as valid.
  10. I noticed some strange things concerning damage and specifically, drop in damage, from this spreadsheet (apparently last updated in version 9.2). It got me wondering how the initial damages and their drop-offs were calculated. This system is extremely simplistic but it still looks like there's plenty of room for improvement. Just a handful of examples: PPSh-41 vs M9A1 For comparison—values from ballistic calculator: PPSh-41 starts with much higher muzzle energy, but the high-speed bullet experiences more drag and rapidly slows down. By 100 m, the remaining energy of the two projectiles is almost equal. In-game: PPSh-41 bullet loses damage gradually, while the bullet from the M9A1 experiences a sudden cliff-like drop. At 20 meters, the PPSh bullet has over 5 times the damage of the 9 mm bullet. Final damage of PPSh-41 bullet is more than double that of M9A1. ? Unexplained, extremely sharp drop on damage for all pistols past a short range. Doesn't seem to apply to SMG firing pistol cartridge. M9A1 at 200 m would have about the same energy as Makarov pistol point-blank, yet in Squad it would have less than 1/4 the Makarov's damage (in fact, as shown above, it would have less than 1/4 the Makarov's initial damage at only 20 m...). Why is the final damage so low on the pistol projectiles? AKM vs AK74 Ballistic calculator: AKM starts with higher muzzle energy but the AK74's more aerodynamic projectile slowly closes the gap. At 500 m, remaining energy is almost equal between the two rounds. In-game: AKM has a fast drop off in damage at just 150 m, after which, for a good distance, the AK74 is much superior. ? AKM has a less aerodynamic projectile than the AK74, but this doesn't explain such a sharp drop so soon. Could it be that AK74's bullet tumbling inside target was taken into account? Probably not, since AKM has 18% higher damage for the first 150 m. Not sure what that drop-off is based on. M110, SVD, G3A3 Ballistic calculator: All three rifles have fairly similar drop in energy. M110's projectile has the highest ballistic coefficient and initial energy, using book values. In-game: M110 damage starts to drop off at only 283 m, but SVD's damage doesn't start to fall until an incredible 365 m. In addition to drop-off advantage the SVD has 8% higher initial damage than M110. The G3A3 experiences a drop in damage much sooner than the other two. ? Why does SVD's damage not drop off sooner? The SVD projectiles are lighter and have an inferior ballistic coefficient compared to those of the M110. Why does the SVD have more initial damage than the M110? AFAIK Squad doesn't attempt to account for body armor and therefore I would expect the M110's 175-gr SMKs to provide equal or greater damage, depending on variables. If projectile construction was simply ignored, M110 still has the highest muzzle energy. Why does G3A3 experience its damage drop-off so soon? It reaches its minimum damage of 35 just 40 meters after the M4A1 and RPK74 hit the same number, which doesn't seem right.
  11. Bullets - Speed

    Uh, that's not how it works. Insurgency now has a system for 'penetration-based armor', but it's only live on co-op and competitive. No body armor in Squad, they have multipliers for different body parts but AFAIK this doesn't take into account armor.
  12. Bullets - Speed

    You are. Ideal performance makes the most of the bullet's energy. As the article says, "if a bullet leaves the target at high speed, it's taking valuable energy with it". That doesn't imply the same bullet will cause more damage when it's moving slow enough to remain in the target. If you were after deer you would want a bullet that uses the majority of its energy through expansion, cavitation, etc, and exits the other side with modest velocity. Exit because exit wound = better blood trail (although you may not need it, nice to have). If you were after, say, coyote, maybe you want to save the pelt and use a lighter bullet that 'blows up' inside the animal in an attempt to avoid an exit wound. But in both cases you want, first and foremost, appropriate penetration, and second, to use all or most of the energy because this usually means a larger wound. Bullets are also not always designed for one scenario, so a general purpose hunting bullet would need to have enough penetration to cover many different shots, eg, not just broadside behind the shoulder. Typically, the higher the speed of impact, the greater the projectile's deformation, so a higher speed will usually mean more damage. If you push a bullet at speeds higher than it was designed for it may deform too much to penetrate adequately, or if the bullet has little or no deformation in the first place there may be little advantage to the higher speed, depending on the shot taken, tissue vs bone, etc. Nosler E-Tip Anyways, in Squad it only makes sense higher speed = more damage.